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AIDS cannot be transmitted by blood transfusion

Can HIV be transmitted through blood transfusions? Yes but this is very rare. In the unlikely event that a person who is HIV-positive donates blood products that are not tested, the person who receives the blood product is likely to develop an HIV infection too The risk of HIV transfusion through infected blood products exceeds that of any other risk exposure. Ninety percent of recipients transfused with HIV antibody-positive blood are found to be HIV infected at follow-up. (1) No HIV-infected but persistently seronegative transfusion recipients have been identified AIDS is a viral disease transmitted through certain body fluids such as semen, saliva, blood, the breast milk of an AIDS infected person by sexual contact, breastfeeding from HIV-infected mother can transmit AIDS to the baby and by blood transfusion. During hug and hand shakes, no body fluid is entered into the body from one person to another Solution: AIDS is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and is transmitted by sexual contact, blood-to-blood contact (blood transfusion) with an infected person where the body fluids are getting exchanged with the non-infected person. A mother infected with AIDS can transmit the disease to her baby while breastfeeding Abstract Shortly after the first cases of AIDS were reported in 1981, it became apparent that this disease was caused by a blood-borne infectious agent that could be transmitted by blood transfusion. Early reports documented a reduced ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ T cells not only in AIDS patients but also in likely carriers of the AIDS pathogen

Blood transfusions & transplants and HIV Aver

the nature of the disease.19 An important part of the spread, however, which will not be restricted to high risk groups, will be through unwitting transfu-sion of HIV-contaminated blood. ' III. Disease and the Blood Supply AIDS is not the only disease which may be spread via blood transfusion Abstract PIP: HIV transmission in transfused blood is a high risk in Nigeria. Although official government policy directs that all blood be screened for HIV, and that all blood donation should be voluntary, there is no legal enforcement of quality of the blood supply, and at least 85% of blood is estimated to be sold by professional donors HIV: How It's Not Transmitted. so this is not a concern. Modern blood transfusions. the promise of stem cells, and more of the top HIV/AIDS news from 2019 People infected with HIV after receiving contaminated blood transfusions are still unaware of their status and are at risk of infecting others with the disease, the public inquiry into Britain's..

Transmission of HIV by Blood, Blood Products, Tissue

Current risk of transmitting HIV via blood transfusion is probably < 1/2,000,000 per unit transfused in the United States. However, in many developing countries, where blood and blood products are not screened for HIV, the risk of transfusion-transmitted HIV infection remains high Needles contaminated with HIV-infected blood when performing non-medical procedures such as tattooing or body piercing is another source of infection. In some cases, HIV can be transmitted via blood transfusion, blood products, tissues and organs. The risk has decreased in recent years due to the screening the blood supply and donated organs. at low risk of infections that can be transmitted through blood and blood products, the phasing out of family/replacement donation and the elimination of paid donation. 3 Quality-assured screening of all donated blood for transfusion-transmissible infections, including HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C MMWR suggests that AIDS may be caused by an infectious agent that is transmitted sexually or through exposure to blood or blood products and issues recommendations for preventing transmission. Link to report of most cases of AIDS have been among homosexual men, injection drug users, Haitians, and people with hemophili

Transfusion transmission by both single-donor and pooled blood components was common early in the course of the 1980s epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Modern donor selection and screening has made transmission a rare event in the UK The study shows that, for sheep infected with BSE or scrapie, transmission rates via blood transfusion can be high, particularly when donors are in the later stages of infection Hospitals adhere to strict infection guidelines to prevent the spread of all infections, including hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV. The risk of catching HIV from blood transfusions is extremely small - less than one chance in a million. You cannot catch HIV from hospital toilets, crockery or casual contact 1. Hospitals. 1987 Sep 5;61(17):60. Hospital not liable for AIDS from blood transfusion. Burda D. PMID: 3623450 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

Defer for 12 months from the most recent transfusion any individual who has a history of receiving a transfusion of Whole Blood or blood components donated by another person (allogeneic transfusion) Ways HIV is not transmitted. The virus itself cannot reproduce itself outside the human body, and thus does not typically 'live' for very long. Therefore HIV/AIDS cannot be spread in any of the following ways: Through water or air. Through contact with saliva, sweat or tears (that aren't mixed with contaminated blood You had a blood transfusion in the United States between 1978 and 1985. You cannot get HIV from being coughed or sneezed on by a person with HIV/AIDS. You cannot get HIV from giving blood. You cannot get HIV from a mosquito bite. Ask about their sexual and drug history. Get tested for sexually transmitted infections every year Blood donations that test positive for HIV are safely discarded and don't enter the blood supply. The risk of HIV transmission during a blood transfusion is conservatively estimated to be 1 in 1. Transmission via transfusion Blood transfusions are an important, lifesaving component of modern medicine. But this technology is associated with a small degree of risk, including blood-borne.

The goal of transfusion medicine is to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection to as low a level as possible. The FDA made news last week by recommending a change in the policy for gay men and donating blood. So what items in your medical history may get you denied from donating blood in the United States Key questions around how thousands of people became infected with hepatitis C and HIV through blood transfusions in 1970s and 80s 1,200 were also infected with HIV, which can cause Aids. Half. Papillomavirus can be transmitted through the blood and produce infections in blood recipients: Evidence from two animal models. Emerging Microbes & Infections , 2019; 8 (1): 1108 DOI: 10.1080. As a result, the risk of contracting HIV from a blood transfusion is very low. Sharing needles HIV can be transmitted through shared needles among people who use injected drugs Approximately 3 years following blood transfusion, the mean CD4+ T-cell count in 64 HIV-negative recipients was 850/µl of blood, while 111 HIV-seropositive individuals had average CD4+ T-cell counts of 375/µl of blood. By 1993, there were 37 cases of AIDS in the HIV-infected group, but not a single AIDS-defining illness in the HIV.

Blood Bank's responsibility: Blood Bank should select only healthy persons from low risk population to donate blood. All donated blood units must be screened for five Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTI), ie HIV, HBV, HCV, Malaria and Syphilis in accordance to the provisions in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and rules thereof 1. Transfusion. 1985 Jan-Feb;25(1):3-9. Measures to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome transmission by blood transfusion. Evidence of volunteer blood donor cooperation. Pindyck J, Waldman A, Zang E, Oleszko W, Lowy M, Bianco C Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS, 20: 805-812, 2006. Baggaley RF et al. Systematic review of orogenital HIV-1 transmission probabilities. International Journal of Epidemiology, 37: 1255-65, 2008. You can read more about this study in our news report The general use of refrigerated blood for transfusion is often cited as an important factor in reducing the risk of transfusion-transmitted syphilis, as Treponema pallidum loses its viability within a few days in whole blood stored at 4 C. However, available data indicate that a small proportion of viable organisms may survive up to 96 hours.

AIDS virus cannot be transmitted by - toppr

  1. der of his contributions to the struggle against AIDS. blood transfusion. not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached.
  2. The 48-year-old man who donated the blood used by the San Francisco baby who contracted the disease did not develop symptoms of AIDS until eight months after the transfusion, and is now dead
  3. Still, some people may not be sure exactly what's safe and what's not. It's true that HIV is a virus, like a cold or the flu -- but it doesn't spread the same way. In fact, it's a lot harder to catch
  4. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a viral infection that progressively destroys certain white blood cells and can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is transmitted through close contact with a body fluid that contains the virus or cells infected with the virus (such as blood, semen, or vaginal fluids)
  5. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is spread through contact with genital fluids or blood of an infected person.The spread of HIV can occur when these secretions come in contact with tissues such as those lining the vagina, anal area, mouth, eyes (the mucus membranes), or with a break in the skin, such as from a cut or puncture by a needle.. During all stages of infection, billions of HIV.
  6. Parasitic Diseases - Transmission of parasitic infections through blood donation is very rare but not impossible. Examples of parasitic diseases that can be transmitted by blood transfusion are.
  7. The officials ''reemphasized the low risk of getting AIDS from blood transfusions'' and said that research results ''do not indicate the need for any new health public health advisory.'

AIDS cannot be transmitted by (a) sexual contac

The discovery in the mid-1980s that the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) could be transmitted by transfusion heightened public concern about blood safety. Over the past decade, efforts hav.. An HIV-positive mother can transmit HIV to her baby any time during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. If you are a woman with HIV and you are pregnant, treatment with a combination of HIV medicines (called antiretroviral therapy or ART) can prevent transmission of HIV to your baby and protect your health With the increasing use of blood transfusions, reports on the spread of infections by transfusion (transfusion transmitted infections -TTIs) began to appear. In 1943 jaundice after blood transfusion was described in one British (Morgan 1943) and one American publication (Beeson 1943)

Viral hepatitis infection transmitted by blood transfusions is rare. The risk of getting hepatitis B from a blood transfusion in the US is about 1 in 800,00 to 1 in 1 million. The risk of getting hepatitis C is about 1 in 1 million. Work continues to be done to reduce the risk of these infections even further. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV In a central Ontario hospital, 25% of recipients did not know if they had received a blood transfusion (S. King, Pers. Comm.). Given that CJD and transfusion-transmitted CJD (if it occurs) are rare, the published case-control studies lack the power to detect very low ORs

To the Editor: Transfusion-transmitted syphilis, which is caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, is one of the oldest recognized infectious risks of blood transfusion ().Routine screening of blood donors and refrigeration of donated blood before its use has resulted in only 3 reported cases of transfusion-transmitted syphilis over the past 4 decades (2-6) March 9, 2020. There is absolutely no evidence of transfusion transmission for COVID-19, or any other coronavirus, says Dr. Steven Drews. COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory virus, with potential to infect the digestive system as well. People can get infected when they inhale or ingest the virus, but not via a blood transfusion The emergence and consequent risk to blood safety of EIDs has proven to be unpredictable. 1-3,6,7 The AABB Transfusion Transmitted Diseases committee in August 2009 published a Supplement to Transfusion that provided focused information on 68 EID agents that pose a real or theoretical threat to transfusion safety, 1 but for which existing. A transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) is a virus, parasite, or other potential pathogen that can be transmitted in donated blood through a transfusion to a recipient. The term is usually limited to known pathogens, but also sometimes includes agents such as Simian foamy virus which are not known to cause disease.. Preventing the spread of these diseases by blood transfusion is addressed in. Since 1981, when doctors first recognized HIV/AIDS as a new illness, scientists have learned much about how a person becomes infected with HIV. The virus is spread through contact with an infected person's body fluids, especially through blood, semen and vaginal fluids. HIV can be transmitted: During sex (anal, vaginal and oral

Prevention of AIDS transmission through screening of the

  1. ated needles (by IV drug abusers), accidental needle sticks, contact with conta
  2. As the National Aids Control Organisation has said, it has not been proven that the HIV virus was in fact transmitted by blood transfusion in all the more than 2,000 cases
  3. Blood-borne viruses that could potentially be transmitted this way include hepatitis B and hepatitis C, as well as HIV. The risk of transmission following a skin puncture injury is dependent on whether the person who previously used the object had an infection, the level of virus in their blood, the amount of blood involved, the type of needle or syringe in question, the time that has elapsed.
  4. One of the most common myths people living with HIV hear is that they can be cured. There's no cure yet for HIV, but antiretroviral treatment works and will keep someone living with HIV healthy. There are lots of myths and misconceptions about how you can get HIV. Here we debunk those myths and give you the facts about how HIV is passed on
  5. The National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO), in an RTI, shared that around 1,342 people across India have contracted the HIV infection due to blood transfusion in 2018-19, giving rise to serious.

Screening blood donations for Babesia microti in endemic areas eliminates transfusion-transmitted babesiosis effectively, according to data published in Transfusion. A total of 506, 540 blood donation samples from Massachusetts, Connecticut, Minnesota, and Wisconsin were screened for B microti by either fluorescence immunoassay or real-time. Transmission of HIV to babies and children by medical personnel through unscreened blood transfusion has been reported in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyztan in 2007 and 2008, respectively . Zahed ( 3 ) described the situation for children worldwide and pointed to Central Asia as a major problem area, particularly for spread of HIV infection How HIV is transmitted. HIV is not passed on easily from one person to another. The virus does not spread through the air like cold and flu viruses. HIV lives in the blood and in some body fluids. To get HIV, 1 of these fluids from someone with HIV has to get into your blood. The body fluids that contain enough HIV to infect someone are: seme

The outcome of the experiment showed that both BSE and scrapie could be effectively transmitted between sheep by blood transfusion. Importantly, the team noted that transmission could occur when. Received a blood transfusion or organ transplant before July 1992, Because HCV is spread through blood, you cannot get the virus from: Breast milk; HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis Today, with HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C no longer a major risk of transfusion, experts can focus on other risks that were always present but were underinvestigated. The world of blood transfusion is constantly changing. The societal perception is that transfusion is good'; we do not know that for many patients Angry: Mark says his life was destroyed (Image: PA). About 7,000 people were infected with either HIV or hepatitis C in the 1970s and 1980s after mistakenly being given blood products taken from.

Transmission of HIV/AIDS Stanford Health Car

  1. ation of blood components is the most common infectious adverse event. Approximately 1 in 2,000-3,300 units of platelets and 1 in 38,500 units of red cells are conta
  2. ated needles or syringes to inject drugs or vaccines, from infected mother to child during pregnancy or breast feeding, during blood transfusion, organ transplantation, etc. AIDS is not transmitted by shaking hands, kissing and hugging, insect bites, sharing.
  3. As a hemodialysis patient, you want to learn all you can about your treatment and what you can do to ensure your health is at its best. One important area you should know about involves infectious diseases. These are diseases that happen when harmful germs get into your body and make you ill. Kidney failure interferes with your body's natural defense system (immune system)
PPT - The Basics of HIV/AIDS PowerPoint Presentation - ID

HIV is NOT spread by blood passed through insect bites. If you inject drugs, the best thing to do is to use new or sterilized injection equipment every time. You can also take a daily medication called pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to lower your risk of HIV with each other's blood By 1990, more than 28,000 people died of AIDS- related causes in New York State HIV was one of the top causes of death among men under the age of 45 Treatment was not very effective an AIDS Transmission. HIV infection is a contagious disease and can be transmitted from person to person. It is most commonly transmitted by having sex without a condom or by sharing needles infected. It is not possible to transmit or contract AIDS, or stage 3 HIV. HIV cannot spread through touching, Banked blood that is available for transfusion does not contain HIV. The virus cannot.

PPT - HIV & AIDS PowerPoint Presentation, free download

Therefore, opening up blood donations to MSM donors would not cause a significant difference in HIV transmission risk from blood transfusions. The American Public Health Association confirms this, stating that the 12-month deferral was modeled after policies of other countries rather than empirical scientific studies They announced that the virus that causes AIDS was most likely transmitted sexually or, less commonly, through contaminated needles or blood, and not through food, water, air, or. Today, blood banks screen donations. You can still get it from a transfusion from a person who contracted HIV right before they donated blood, but this is very rare. You can't get HIV from. Although T. cruzi can be transmitted by blood transfusion, to date, the Red Cross has not identified any recipients infected by blood components from screen-negative donors or screened-negative donors who subsequently tested positive (seroconverted). All reports of transfusion transmission have been from unscreened platelets, except from one. Blood testing: The FDA reviews and approves all test kits used to detect infectious diseases in donated blood. After donation, each unit of donated blood is required to undergo a series of tests.

In the case of blood transfusion, blood type (such as A, B, AB and O) is carefully matched between the donor and recipient so the recipient's immune system doesn't see the red blood cells as. Shorter incubation periods have been estimated for persons infected through blood transfusion and for pediatric patients. For pediatric patients, Auger et al. described an incubation distribution with rapid progression in the first 2 years followed by a slower rate of progression to AIDS, which increases again after 4 or 5 years Q: How soon after risky sex can you be 100% sure you are clear of HIV? There is no single correct answer to this question. One recommended strategy is to get tested 2-4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after a risky exposure Transfusion Transmission of HIV 1. Past & Current Risk Estimates of Transfusion-Transmitted HIV - receiving a transfusion of whole blood, a blood component, or a clotting factor concentrate within the past 12 months. Impact of HIV Testing on Transfusion Associated AIDS Before 3/85 After 3/85 Adults 8,038 37 Children 374 2. Whether HHV-8 is transmitted by blood transfusion remains controversial. 4 Transmissibility of the virus by this route may be limited by the cell-associated nature of the virus and the low.

How Is HIV Transmitted? HIV

  1. However, it should be noted that the current frequencies of infectious virus transmission by single units of blood or blood components are lower than reported in the statement. For more recent information, see Schreiber GB. The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections. NEJM 1996;334:1685-1690
  2. HIV-positive people who are taking antiretroviral medicines and have no virus in their blood do not transmit the virus. The US blood supply is among the safest in the world. Nearly all people infected with HIV through blood transfusions received those transfusions before 1985, the year HIV testing began for all donated blood
  3. Ryan, a hemophiliac who contracted the virus through a blood transfusion, died of complications of AIDS in Riley Hospital for Children, said Dr. Martin Kleiman, the youth's physician. He would not.
  4. istration (FDA) licenses the first test to detect the antibody to HIV on March 3, Red Cross Blood Services regions begin testing all newly donated blood
  5. Then, blood cannot clot and bleeding will not stop. Blood transfusion benefits patients by treating or preventing these situations. What are the risks of blood transfusion? Canada's blood supply is one of the safest in the world but blood can never be risk-free. In Canada, the risk of transfusion-transmitted disease for each unit of blood is.
  6. Trends in transfusion-associated acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the United States, 1982 through 1991. Transfusion 1993; 33:890. Ward JW, Holmberg SD, Allen JR, et al. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by blood transfusions screened as negative for HIV antibody
  7. It can be transmitted by blood transfusion from a donor who has recently been infected. WNV is commonly found in Africa, Western Asia, Europe, Australia, USA and Canada. The 'season' for this virus is between 1 st May and 30 th November

The Legal Liability of Blood Donor Services and

The findings underline the importance of precautions against vCJD transmission, such as the Government decision in 2004 to ban blood donations from anyone who had received a blood transfusion. The risk of transfusion associated AIDS is thus quite remote in 1993. For hepatitis B virus, only about 1 in 200,000 units of blood transmit this virus now. In sum, only about 3 units of blood per 10,000 of those collected from acceptable, volunteer donors are currently likely to transmit a serious or fatal transfusion-transmitted viral infection The transfusion of safe blood is proven only to treat a condition otherwise leading to significant morbidity/mortality that cannot be prevented or managed effectively by other means. The benefit. Many people are concerned about developing an HIV (AIDS) infection from a blood transfusion. Donor centers began testing blood for HIV in 1985, and the tests used have improved several times since then. It may help to know that the chance of getting HIV from a blood transfusion is about 1 in a million. Ask your child's doctor if you have more. Laboratory testing of donated blood — After a unit of blood has been donated, the blood is tested in a laboratory for infectious diseases that can be transmitted by blood transfusion. These include tests for HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), West Nile virus, Zika virus, syphilis, and Chagas disease

Blood Safety Basics - TheBody: The HIV/AIDS Resourc

The difference with AIDS was it was not a disease that [we] knew, and we didn't have a laboratory test. pattern from sexually transmitted, blood-borne transmitted disease, which we had seen. Sexually transmitted and blood borne infections (STBBIs) A group of infections that spread from one person to another through sexual contact or contact with blood or blood products (e.g., sharing needles). Sexual contact includes vaginal, anal or oral sex, and sometimes skin-to-skin contact Transmission of Hepatitis B. The hepatitis B virus is transmitted through blood and sexual fluids. This can most commonly occur in the following ways: Direct contact with infected blood. Unprotected sex. Use of illegal or street drugs. Needles and other medical/dental equipments or procedures that are contaminated or not sterile HIV is not transmitted via ordinary contact (hugging, dancing, sneezing, talking, touching, or shaking hands) with someone who has HIV or AIDS. HIV is also not transmitted through sweat, tears or saliva; or through sharing food, utensils, towels, bedding, a swimming pool, telephone or toilet seat with someone who has the virus

10 Therapeutic Properties of Turmeric That Can Fight HIV/AIDS

NCERT Exemplar Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 13 - Why

HBV can also be transmitted inadvertently by the sharing of personal items such as razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers, body jewelry and other personal items that have small amounts of blood on them. Hepatitis B is not transmitted casually by sneezing or coughing, shaking hands, hugging or sharing or preparing a meal Introduction Viral hepatitis remains a significant threat to transfusion safety, although largely mitigated by donor screening. Aim Our objective was to estimate the past and present burden of transfusion transmission of all types of viral hepatitis (A to E) and to find undiagnosed infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Method We performed a retrospective cohort study using a database of the. A blood transfusion is a routine medical procedure in which donated blood is provided to you through a narrow tube placed within a vein in your arm. This potentially life-saving procedure can help replace blood lost due to surgery or injury. A blood transfusion also can help if an illness prevents your body from making blood or some of your. Blood Transfusion Safety. Every patient and doctor is concerned about blood supply safety. The good news is that the risk of transmitting viral diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis by blood transfusion had dropped dramatically in the last 25 years. This is the result of a multi-layered approach to safety

Revised Recommendations for Reducing the Risk of Human

Each blood donation is tested for hepatitis C, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS and other infections that may be transmitted from blood. If any donated blood fails testing, it is not used. This is done to make sure that the highest standards in safety are maintained HIV can spread: during sex (especially anal sex and vaginal sex) through sharing needles for injecting drugs or tattooing. by getting stuck with a needle with an infected person's blood on it. HIV also can pass from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV does not spread through: pee, poop, spit, throw-up, or sweat. Developing laboratory-derived blood components for transfusion. Although blood transfusions are very common, a shortage of donors could mean that a specific type of blood is not available when needed. The NHLBI supports research into methods to solve this problem by growing red blood cells and platelets in the laboratory

On World Aids Day, activists say stigma remains in

Liability for Post-Transfusion AIDS: An Analysis and Proposa

Ans. An HIV-infected mother can infect the child in her womb through her blood. The baby is more at risk if the mother has been recently infected or is in a later stage of AIDS. Transmission can also occur at the time of birth when the baby is exposed to the mother's blood and to some extent transmission can occur through breast milk.. Q A blood transfusion is a safe procedure that can help treat several conditions. Read this article to learn about the different types of blood transfusions and why a person might need one No action taken against hospitals or blood banks, says RTI activist. In the last 17 months alone, 2,234 persons across India have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) while.

Transmission of HIV through blood transfusio

calculations indicate the OR is 0.78 (95% con- If CJD is transmitted in blood, cases could fidence interval 0.38, 1.58) with a power of only increase in industrialized countries, where access 30% to detect an OR different from one (60). to blood transfusion is greater To control the spread of the virus, the Indian government sets up the National AIDS Control Programme to co-ordinate national responses such as blood screening and health education. Blood Transfusion Services gained importance as HIV is transmitted through blood. 1989 - Ministry of Health & Family Welfare launched Modernization of Blood Banks. HIV Infections and AIDS. General Goal: To know the major causes of this disease, how it is transmitted, and understand the basic processes that result in the progression from HIV infection to AIDS. Specific Educational Objectives: The student should be able to:. recite the most likely causes of HIV/AIDS and how this viral infection is usually acquired in the United States (modes of. Consensus statement on accelerated strategies to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion, Geneva, 20-22 March 1989  WHO Global Programme on AIDS ; World Health Organization. Health Laboratory Technology Unit ; League of Red Cross Societies ; Global Blood Safety Initiative (‎ World Health OrganizationWorld Health. In 2002, several case reports implicated blood transfusions, organ transplants, and breast-feeding in the transmission of West Nile virus (WNV; see Journal Watch Infectious Diseases Nov 8 2002.

A quick breakdown on how HIV can be transmitted