Home

How is Histoplasma capsulatum transmitted

Histoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by inhaling the spores of a fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasmosis is not contagious; it cannot be transmitted from an infected person or animal to someone else. Histoplasmosis primarily affects a person's lungs, and its symptoms vary greatly Histoplasma capsulatum may also be found in the soil, particularly soil which has been enriched with bird or bat droppings. How is histoplasmosis spread? People get histoplasmosis by breathing air which contains small spore forms of the organism. Spores become airborne when contaminated soil is disturbed Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by breathing in spores of a fungus often found in bird and bat droppings. The infection is most commonly spread when these spores are inhaled after taking to the air, such as during demolition or cleanup projects Is histoplasmosis contagious? No. Histoplasmosis can't spread from the lungs between people or between people and animals. However, in extremely rare cases, the infection can be passed through an organ transplant with an infected organ. 7 If I've already had histoplasmosis, could I get it again Transmission and Disease Histoplasma capsulatum causes systemic mycoses named histoplasmosis also known as darling's disease, cave disease or spelunker's disease. People contract this disease by the inhalation of the spore or bird or bat droppings contaminated with spores

Histoplasmosis: Protecting Workers at Risk (97-146

Habitat. Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic ascomycete that grows in its hyphal form in soil and bird and bat guano.; The natural habitat of capsulatum is the soil and has also been recovered most frequently from soil material contaminated with bird or bat droppings.; Unlike bats, birds do not become infected with capsulatum and their droppings serve as a nutrient source for the fungus. ZOONOSIS: Histoplasma capsulatum is not transmitted between animals and humans, although, transfer form soil contaminated with avian or bat guano does occur (17) Histoplasma has a world-wide distribution (4), but is mostly endemic in the Americas (Central/Eastern United States & Central and South America) Reservoir includes: soil, areas of construction, animal droppings (i.e. bats - a board favorite!), and caves (another board favorite) Mode of transmission: aerogenic Histoplasma capsulatum was discovered by Pathologist, Samuel Taylor Darling in 1906. It is a causative agent of histoplasmosis ( systemic disease) sometimes called Darling's disease, in honor of discoverer. It a domorphic fungus and thus it grows as filamentous molds as saprobes and in culture at 25°C; while in humans or culture at 37 °C.

See Article History Histoplasmosis, infection with the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, occurring in humans and other animals. The disease is contracted by the inhalation of dust containing spores of the fungus. H. capsulatum prefers moist, shady conditions and is found in woods, caves, cellars, silos, and old chicken houses Histoplasma capsulatum is transmitted via inhalation of airborne spores. All of the true pathogen fungi discussed in this chapter are members of the Ascomycota and are dimorphic. White patches on the surface of the tongue and the oral mucosa accompanied by inflammation and swelling are signs consistent wit Due to the high concentration of bird feces, chicken coops are a major source of the infectious fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. However, these are not the only places that this fungus can develop...

Histoplasma Capsulatum Texas A&M University Kingsvill

  1. ated by bird or bat droppings
  2. The mold form of Histoplasma capsulatum grows in soil containing rotted bird or bat guano. Microconidia are the infectious particles of the mold, while the macroconidia are characteristic of the organism and provide a clue to its identification. H. capsulatum grows as a yeast above 35°C. The yeast is the pathogenic form of the organism found.
  3. ants in the severity of consequent illness []
  4. Breathing the spores causes infection. The disease is not transmitted from an infected person to someone else. Symptoms, when they occur, start within three to 17 days after exposure; the average..
  5. ated with bat guano or bird droppings); not transmitted from person to person
  6. Histoplasma capsulatum: a global fungal pathogen. Infection with Histoplasma capsulatum causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. This fungus is a dimorphic ascomycete that grows in its hyphal form in soil and bird and bat guano. Upon inhalation of spores, H. capsulatum transforms into the pathogenic yeast phase. This form replicates within macrophages that carry the yeast from.

Histoplasmosis - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clini

  1. ated with bird or bat droppings. No direct human-to-human transmission has been reported
  2. Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. This fungus lives in the environment, especially in soil that contains large amounts of bird or bat droppings, and enters the body through the lungs. Many people with infection do not become sick, or they develop mild flu-like illness. Some people might develop pneumonia
  3. of Histoplasma capsulatum, which mainly occurs in equids. Its most common form is an ulcerative, suppurative, spreading dermatitis and lymphangitis; however, some animals can develop lesions in other organs, particularly the respiratory tract or eye. leading to uncontrolled spread of the organism and significant economic losses. Rar

H. capsulatum is the most common endemic fungal infection in the US and is most prevalent in the midwestern and central states along the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. Transmission is through inhalation, and exposure to soils containing bird or bat droppings increases the risk of infection The primary route of transmission is inhalation of infectious spores made airborne by the disturbance of contaminated soil. The presence of Histoplasma capsulatum has been associated with soil enriched with bird feces especially blackbirds, starlings, chickens, and pigeons

Histoplasmosis: What Is Your Health Worth? - Get Bats OutFlashcards - Organisms Causing Systemic Mycoses - Safety

Chapter 22 The Fungi of Medical Importance. Exposure to Histoplasmosis capsulatum is most likely when disturbing dirt contaminated with ____ from bird and bat guano. Fungal spores are normally found distributed in all of the following EXCEPT ______. Multiple choice question. Nice work H. capsulatum is a dimorphic fungi that grows as a mold in nature or in culture at room temperature but converts to a small (1 to 5 micrometers in diameter) yeast cell at 37 ° C and during invasion of host cells. Infection follows inhalation of conidia (spores produced by the mycelial form of the fungus) in soil or dust contaminated with bird or bat droppings

Histoplasmosis Risk & Prevention Types of Diseases

  1. Histoplasma capsulatum is found in soil, often associated with decaying bat guano or bird droppings. Disruption of soil from excavation or construction can release infectious elements that are inhaled and settle into the lung. From 1938 to 2013 in the US, 105 outbreaks were reported in 26 states and Puerto Rico
  2. Histoplasma capsulatum is the name of the fungus that causes histoplasmosis. It is found in the central and eastern United States, eastern Canada, Mexico, Central America, South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. It is commonly found in the soil in river valleys. It gets into the soil mostly from bird and bat droppings
  3. Transmission of Histoplasma capsulatum by organ transplantation N Engl J Med. 2000 Oct 19;343(16):1163-6. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200010193431605. Authors A P Limaye 1 , P A Connolly, M Sagar, T R Fritsche, B T Cookson, L J Wheat, W E Stamm. Affiliation 1 Department of.
  4. Histoplasma capsulatumis transmitted most commonly through what mechanism? Histoplasma capsulatumis transmitted via inhalation of airborne spores 8. Which of the following fungal infections was extremely rare prior to the AIDS epidemic? Pneumocystispneumonia 9. Infection of the skin byTrichophyton rubrumresults in raised red scaly patches of.

Histoplasma capsulatum is a fungal pathogen that can result in a wide range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic through fatal infection. It usually causes lung disease called Histoplamosis or Darling's disease. It is called Darling's disease because it was found by Samuel Darling in histopathologic specimens about a century ago The Disease. Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by a fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. This infection usually results in a mild, self-limiting upper respiratory illness that may be unnoticed or ignored. The severity of the illness depends upon two primary factors: The immune status of the patient. The dose of spores that are inhaled

Histoplasma capsulatum: Properties, Diseases, Lab

Flashcards - Mycology, Helminths and Protozoa - Describe

Transmission of histoplasmosis occurs in endemic areas via dust and aerosols containing conidia of Histoplasma capsulatum. 1 Several reports showed occasional and occupational instances of histoplasmosis contracted while bat caves were visited by tourists or researchers. 2-4 Up to now, humid air contaminated with H capsulatum conidia was regarded a major epidemiological risk factor for new. Histoplasma capsultatum is a zoonotic fungal pathogen, commonly found in soils and bird feces, that affects the respiratory system ( Ajello, 1964 ). In endemic areas of the United States as much as 80 to 90% of the human population is infected ( Rubin et al., 1959 ). Fewer than 10% of those who inhale airborne spores develop a pulmonary infection

Histoplasma Capsulatum - Habitat, Epidemiology, Treatment

Histoplasmosis is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Symptoms of this infection vary greatly, but the disease affects primarily the lungs. Occasionally, other organs are affected; called disseminated histoplasmosis, it can be fatal if left untreated Bird Disease. Histoplasmosis . Bird Diseases Bird Control Pest Control Information Histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis is an infectious disease of the lungs caused by a fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum. The infection sometimes can spread to other parts of the body. This Histoplasma organism thrives in moderate temperatures and moist environments Example of intracellular (monocyte) yeasts of H. capsulatum in disseminated histoplasmosis. Wrights stain of blood. A few Histoplasma cells inside a liver macrophage (x2000) An example of Histoplasma in tissue, stained with a silver (GMS) stain. Microscopic morphology of Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasma capsulatum Histoplasma capsulatum lives in acidic, damp environments that contain organic material. High concentrations of the fungus occur in caves where bats or birds reside, and the fungi are in the soil. Bats and birds can become infected and spread the fungi in their feces Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that remains in a mycelial form at ambient temperatures and grows as yeast at body temperature in mammals. Infection causes histoplasmosis. Although the fungus that causes histoplasmosis can be found in temperate climates throughout the world, it is endemic to the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi River valleys in the United States

Infection with Histoplasma capsulatum is usually due to breathing in the spores that are airborne. When the soil is disturbed, the spores float in the air and can be inhaled by people. The fungus is not contagious; therefore the infected person cannot spread it to another via contact. Complications of Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis also known as: Cave disease, Darling's disease, Ohio valley disease, reticuloendotheliosis, spelunker's lung and caver's disease is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Symptoms of this infection vary greatly, but the disease affects primarily the lungs. Occasionally, other organs are affected.

Histoplasmosis is an infection of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. When a dog inhales spores of H. capsulatum, Once in these systems, the infection can continue to spread to major organs such as the liver, skin, spleen and more. This type of whole body infection is called a systemic infection. Signs of Histoplasmosis in Dogs Histoplasma capsulatum is a mold that is found in soil in certain areas. It found in larger quantities in soil or even other material that is contaminated with bat and bird droppings. If the soil particles become airborne, the mold can then be inhaled. Due to the warmer temperature in the body, it changes to an yeast form specifically within cells

Human infection with the pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum produces diverse clinical manifestations, ranging from an influenza-like illness to a cavitary lung disease to life-threatening dissemination affecting multiple major organ systems [1, 2].Long considered to be an infection endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States and Central and South America [3, 4], new. Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus. In soil, it grows as a spore-bearing mold with macroconidia, but it converts to a yeast phase at body temperature. Epidemiology The quantity of inoculum inhaled, strain virulence, and the immune status of the host affect the degree of illness. Reinfection is possible, but requires a. Team 5 - Histoplasma capsulatum Group Members: Lana Amin, Michele Dao, Kha Doan, Ronald Ramos, Stephanie Sy, Vinny Vo Fungus Name and Type Histoplasma capsulatum It is a dimorphic fungus that shifts from mold to yeast form. It grows in a differentiated multicellular mold form Ecology of Histoplasma capsulatum Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus. The mold or mycelial form exists as a mold in the soil where it absorbs nutrients from dead organic matter and produces infectious spores. Exists as a yeast in tissues. When these spores are inhaled, they encounter the warm moist environment of the lungs

Histoplasma capsulatum MSDSonlin

Histoplasmosis is a non-contagious fungal infection of dogs, cats, other domestic and non-domestic animals, and humans. It is caused by inhalation of a fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum carried on dust with a primary infection in the lung. In dogs, evidence suggests that prolonged exposure to high levels of Histoplasma organisms increase the. Jun 12, 2019 - Explore Amir Khosravi's board Histoplasma capsulatum on Pinterest. See more ideas about microbiology, fungi, medical laboratory science Histoplasmosis is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold.) The fungus is common in the eastern and central United States. It grows in soil and material contaminated with bat or bird droppings. You get infected by breathing the fungal spores. You cannot get the infection from someone else Send by email View as PDF Send by post Histoplasmosis is caused by a soil-based fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum.The Histoplasma organism is found in soil with high organic content and undisturbed bird and bat droppings, for example in and around old chicken houses, bat caves and pigeon roosts.. People usually become infected with histoplasmosis after breathing in the microscopic fungal. Histoplasma capsulatum is a thermally dimorphic fungus, growing as a mold in the environment and as a yeast at 37ºC. Infection develops when Histoplasma microconidia are inhaled into the lungs, where they change into the yeast form. Neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells are attracted in response to the infection

Histoplasma Capsulatum FOAMi

  1. ation is self-limited and can
  2. The infective organism is called Histoplasma capsulatum. It is found in the soil, and prefers warm, moist and humid conditions. In America, this fungus has been encountered in 31 US states; it is most commonly encountered in the midwest and southern regions, particularly in regions along the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio rivers
  3. View histoplasmosis.pptx from NR 305 HEA NR 302 at Chamberlain College of Nursing. HISTOPLASMA CAPSULATUM YERENIS LLANES Histoplasma capsulatum Is a fungal pathogen that can result in a wide rang

Sexual Reproduction in Histoplasma capsulatum. By Libero Ajello, Shu-lan Cheng. See all Hide authors and affiliations. Science 31 Mar 1967: Vol. 155, Issue 3770, pp. 1696 DOI: 10.1126/science.155.3770.1696 Article; Info & Metrics; eLetters; PDF; This is a PDF-only article. The first. HISTOPLASMOSIS (Histoplasma capsulatum) Histoplasmosis is a systemic disease, mostly of the reticuloendothelial system, manifesting itself in the bone marrow, lungs, liver, and the spleen. In fact, hepatosplenomegaly is the primary sign in children, while in adults, histoplasmosis more commonly appears as pulmonary disease Histoplasmosis is a disease that results from inhalation of spores of the fungus Histoplasma Capsulatum. The fungus is found in the environment, and breathing in the microscopic, airborne spores from the fungus can cause lung infections. If left untreated, the infection can spread to other organs, such as the spleen or liver Histoplasmosis is a serious fungal infection caused by the geographically restricted dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum (sensu lato). This species complex has been subdivided on the basis of genetic distinctions to at least seven different genetic species; in North America, two genetic species have been proposed: Histoplasma ohioense and. Characteristics of Histoplasma capsulatum include. A. it grows in moist soil; rich in nitrogen from bird and bat droppings. B. it is a yeast with a capsule. C. it is commonly found in the Southwestern United States. D. it always results in severe infections. E. its transmission occurs through water droplets

Histoplasma : Introduction, Morphology,Life Cycle

- Infections Caused by Histoplasma Capsulatum. This lesson covers the following topics: Identify the places that histoplasmosis capsulatum can commonly be foun It is important to note that these infections are not communicable, or capable of being spread from person to person. Slide 4 Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasma capsulatum, the causative agent of Histoplasmosis, was first described in 1906 by Samuel Darling while working in the Canal Zone in Panama Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by the organism Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasma is a soil-borne, free living, dimorphic fungus (which means that once it enters a body, the fungus morphs into yeast form). In the United States, it is commonly found in the Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri River Valleys Histoplasma capsulatum. 2. Can anyone get Histoplasmosis? - Yes. Studies have shown that between 50 and 80 percent of people living in areas where H. capsulatum fungus is common, such as the eastern and central United States have been exposed at some point in their lifetime. Infants, young children, and older persons, in particular those wit

6/27/2016 UCSF Histoplasma capsulatum Exposure/Injury Protocol for Research Laboratories Page 6 of 14 . UCSF Office of Environment, Health and Safety . Modes of Transmission: Inhalation of airborne conidia; small size of infective conidia (< 5 µm) is conducive to airborne dispersal and intrapulmonary retention. The spores of H. capsulatum are o Disturbances of contaminated material cause small spores of H. capsulatum to become airborne. Once airborne, spores can be easily carried by wind currents over long distances. People can become infected if they inhale these spores. Histoplasmosis is not contagious; it cannot be transmitted from an infected person or animal to someone else Histoplasmosis is a regionally endemic mycosis caused by inhalation of the spores of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum from the soil, leading occasionally to symptomatic disease and asymptomatic pulmonary nodules . Soils act as reservoirs for Histoplasma, especially where temperatures are 22°C-29°C and annual rainfall is 35-50 inches Histoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum. The infection usually affects the lungs and symptoms can vary greatly. It can sometimes affect other parts of the body, including the eyes, liver, central nervous system, skin, or adrenal glands

Dr

Histoplasma capsulatum infection: Description, Causes and Risk Factors: Histoplasma capsulatum infection is an infection in the lungs caused by inhaling the spores of a fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. It is common in most of the central and eastern United States. The fungus grows in soil, as well as bird and bat droppings H. capsulatum is the etiologic agent of histoplasmosis, the most common pulmonary mycosis of humans and animals.(4) Forty million people in the United States are estimated to have been infected by H. capsulatum, with approximately 500,000 new infections occurring each year.(4) Asymptomatic or mild infections due to H. capsulatum are the rule. Histoplasma capsulatum is one of the more common causes of infection in the U.S. Midwest and Southeast. Histoplasmosis, acquired by inhalation of mycelial fragments and microconidia, is most often self-limiting but can cause potentially lethal infection in patients with preexisting conditions

Histoplasma capsulatum The colonies seen growing on the blood agar in the upper image on the right are gray-white and have a delicate cob-web appearance. The lactophenol blue mount (lower image) reveals delicate background hyphae (thus the cob-web appearance of the colonies) and the production of macroconidia with a conspicuous prickly surface. with Histoplasma capsulatum, and the illness gets worse rather than subsiding after a few days, seek medical care and inform thehealth care provider about your exposure. What are the Symptoms of Histoplasmosis? Most infected persons have no apparent ill effects. If symptoms occur, they will start within 3 to 17 days after exposure Reference: Histoplasma capsulatum Board review style question #2 A patient with a prior history of histoplasmosis presents with a recurrent inflammatory bowel disease flare requiring corticosteroids and immunosuppression with biologic agents Science 31 Mar 1967: Vol. 155, Issue 3770, pp. 1696 DOI: 10.1126/science.155.3770.169 The information on this page is current as of April 1 2020. For the most up-to-date version of CFR Title 21, go to the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR). Sec. 866.3320 Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. (a) Identification. Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in.

Natural Shelters - Identifying And Adapting A Survival Shelter

histoplasmosis Description, Transmission, & Symptoms

Histoplasmosis, caused by a fungus by the name of Histoplasma capsulatum, is one of the few fungal diseases that affects cats in a higher proportion than dogs.Histoplasmosis is a Midwestern disease, affecting pets residing in and around the Mississippi River Valley Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus. Its outbreaks are associated with large construction projects and exposure to bird droppings. It can also be transmitted by organ transplantation from an infected donor Key Terms. Histoplasmosis: Histoplasmosis is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.Symptoms of this infection vary greatly, but the disease primarily affects the lungs. Other organs are occassionally affected; this is called disseminated histoplasmosis and can be fatal if left untreated Histoplasmosis is primarily a pulmonary disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum with varying symptoms.The fungus is found in high concentrations in soil contaminated with bird or bat excreta while transmission occurs via inhalation of H. capsulatum spores from the soil H. capsulatum shares some features with the etiologic agents of HAI, bacteria or fungi, which support the nosocomial involvement of H. capsulatum infection: worldwide distribution (facilitated by flying reservoirs), its ubiquity, production of aerosolized infective propagules that spread the fungus in the environment and favor the infection by.

This micrograph depicts histopathologic changes associated

22 Flashcards - Quizle

Nomenclature of Histoplasma and its ecology Histoplasmosis has three clinical entities with separate etiologic agents (Table 1). Based on phenotypic char-acters, Histoplasma is divided into three varieties, viz. H. capsulatum var. capsulatum, H. capsulatum var. duboi-sii and H. capsulatum var. farciminosum. The commones Histoplasma capsulatum has a worldwide distribution, however the Mississippi-Ohio River Valley in the USA is recognised as a major endemic region. Environmental isolations of the fungus have been made from soil enriched with excreta from chicken, starlings and bats. Histoplasmosis is an intracellular mycotic infection of the reticuloendothelial.

What is Histoplasmosis? - Infections Caused by Histoplasma

Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that causes histoplasmosis, a regionally endemic pulmonary mycosis. Histoplasma exists in nature as a spore-forming mold in soils contaminated with bird or bat droppings.1 Up to 90% of persons living in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys of the United States are exposed to th Sputum or bronchoscopy culture is usually positive for H. capsulatum in chronic cavitary pulmonary histoplasmosis. The laboratory should be warned of the possibility of Histoplasma as it is a class 3 pathogen. In fibrosing mediastinitis and adrenal histoplasmosis, radiology provides the most obvious clue to the diagnosis environments, H. capsulatum is commonly associated with bat and bird droppings. Pneumocystis-host specificity has been primarily studied in laboratory animals, and its ability to be harboured by wild animals remains as an important issue for understanding the spread of this pathogen in nature. Bats infected with H. capsulatum or Pneumocystis spp

Histoplasmosis (Cave Disease): Treatment, Symptoms & Diagnosi

Histoplasmosis is caused by a fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum. The fungus is present in the environment and grows in soil and material contaminated with large amounts of bird or bat droppings. When disturbed, the fungi can become airborne and can be inhaled by humans and animals. Histoplasmosis cannot be transmitted by infected people or. Description. Histoplasma capsulatum (teleomorph: Ajellomyces capsulatus) is a microfungus that is endemic to most of the United States, with particularly high concentrations in the Mississippi, St. Lawrence and Ohio River valleys. The fungus thrives in matter with high nitrogen content, in particular bird manure (i.e. pigeon or starling roosts)

The Focus Diagnostics Histoplasma DxSelect™ is intended for qualitatively detecting antibodies to Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum in human serum. The test is indicated for testing persons having symptoms of respiratory disease, as an aid in the presumptive laboratory diagnosis of histoplasma infection Histoplasma is a genus of dimorphic fungi. Histoplasma capsulatum is a common disease in HIV-positive adults Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis is a respiratory infection that is caused by inhaling the spores of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, the fungus that causes histoplasmosis. The infection usually affects the lungs and symptoms can vary greatly. It can sometimes affect other parts of the body, including the eyes, liver, central nervous system. A silent spread to lymph nodes and spleen may occur during this first stage.3 There are three varieties H capsulatum: var capsulatum, var farciminosum, and var duboisii. The most common is H capsulatum var capsulatum.3,4 The severity of the H capsulatum infection depends on the intensity of exposure and the host's immunologic status Transmission is thought to occur through contact of infected material with ticks or inhalation of spores. The causative agent, Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, is a thermally dimorphic, fungal soil saprophyte that persists in the environment providing a reservoir of infection. Differential diagnoses include glanders. Histoplasma capsulatum is an endemic mycosis seen in regions of North America, South America, Africa, and Asia, primarily linked to bird and bat patterns. Within the United States, the majority of cases are found in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys. Transmission occurs via inhalation of spores from contaminated soil [].Within endemic regions, exposure is common